The lightning network acts as a second layer on top of the Bitcoin network with a separate set of protocols dictating how transactions are processed.
Any of these changes, or soft fork adjustments, need a consensus agreement from Bitcoin’s users for the cryptocurrency to continue functioning with an altered blockchain.
But the disagreements between the small blockers and the part of the community backing Ver’s block size alteration proved too great, with supporters from both sides adopting their preferred Bitcoin alterations.
SEGWIT was introduced to the original Bitcoin protocol by the small blockers, while other users followed the fork utilising the newly split blockchain allowing for 8MB block, and the birth of Bitcoin Cash.
Despite further development and a slow divergence in purpose and functionality, Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin still share the same core DNA.
Bitcoin Cash has continued down its path in focussing on block size to maximise performance, going on to expand its capacity from 8MB to 32MB.
This was until Bitcoin Cash experienced its first hard fork, dividing users in disagreement over the method and splitting Bitcoin Cash in two.
What eventually became known as Bitcoin ABC is the original Bitcoin Cash blockchain, which allowed a protocol adjustment to allow a similar concept to smart contracts.
The fork is Bitcoin Sitoshi’s Vision, or Bitcoin SV
Bitcoin SVThe cryptocurrency born following its hard fork split from the original Bitcoin Cash blockchain., which incorporated users’ content with continuing the cryptocurrency’s block size expansion and adjusted block size to 128MB.